Substance-related disorders occur when there is continual substance use despite physical, mental, social, legal and/or financial consequences, and where a physical and psychological dependence develops. Often concurrent disorders exist whereby the substance-related disorder exists with another mental health problem such as a mood or anxiety disorder.
Types of substance-related disorders:
- Substance abuse: continual use despite negative consequences; does not experience extremely strong cravings for the substance
- Substance dependence: dealing with tolerance (needing to increase the amount of substance to have an effect) and withdrawal (reaction when use of the specific substance stops) and experiences extremely strong cravings for the substance
Type of substances:
- Depressants: alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, inhalants, opiates
- Stimulants: amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine
Note: Athletes can have an addictive disorder that includes substances used to enhance performance, such as steroids and stimulants. Athletes may also experience non substance-related addictive disorders, such as gambling disorder.
Possible Signs of Substance Withdrawal
The following symptoms are seen in several types of substance withdrawal:
- trouble sleeping
- depressed mood or anxiousness
- aches and pains
- hand tremors
- transient hallucinations